Depicted below on this page is a schematic Map of the Mongol Empire in the period 1300 AD To 1400 AD.
The Mongol Empire reached it's largest size between the years 1240 AD and 1298 AD during the reign of Kublai Khan.
Around 1237 AD - 1240 AD the Mongols saw large victories and expansions in the West where they reached Europe.  In 1240 AD the City of Kiev and region (Kievan Rus), a large part of Russia and Hungary fell to the advancing Mongol Armies, while Poland was also invaded. After lingering resistance and lenghty diplomacy Russia finally became a vasal state of the Mongol Empire in 1274 AD. There was considerable pressure on the remnants of the Byzantine Empire and its Capital Constantinople.
Meanwhile, in the East, the Mongols had subsequently conquered all of China, and launched invasions against a multitude of Nations and peoples. Among things, after no less than 6 repeated military campaigns into Goryeo, the State on the Korean Peninsula finally became a tributary state 1270 AD.  Two attempted invasions of Japan in 1274 AD and 1280 AD failed. Three military campaigns against the Tran Dynasty in Vietnam succeeded in subdueing the Viet People (Roughly: Vietnam) by 1288 AD, but the war exhausted both sides . Reaching into the Malay Peninsula and beyond the Mongolians even managed to capture parts of Java Island (Indonesia) and get tribute from Sumatra (kingdom) in 1293 AD. The ground gained was soon lost however. Attempts to include the Sakhalin Peninsula went on until the year 1308 AD, when the indigenous tribes finally accepted Mongol Rule. This concludes the period that is known as the early Mongol Empire.
The China Report
Map China - History - Mongol Empire & Yuan Dynasty 1300 AD - 1405 AD
This page was last updated on: October 19, 2017
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The turning point of the Empire did not come by Military defeat but by means of the Death of Kublai Khan (Life: 1215 AD  – February 18, 1294 AD) who is considered the fifth and last Great Khan of the Empire. Already during the Reign of the Kublai Khan adversity in Military Affairs and the insurrection of Kaidu, a decendent of the Ogedeites, during which a rebel Khanate was formed in Western Mongolia a overstretch of the Empire announced itself. The Kaidu insurrection was still ongoing at the time of the death of the Kublai. Soon after his passing the Empire fragmented into 4 large parts, regional powers which, through various wars and intrigues, became independent. These regions corresponded with the various Khanates and were; the domain of Timur Lenk (Persia),  the Golden Horde and the White Horde of Central Asia, the Cathay Khanate (China) and the previously central Mongol Khanate. Thus, the successor of Kublai continue to hold the title of "Yuan Emperor", but there would be no more "Great Khan of the Mongols". The Yuan Dynasty only held sway over Cathay (China) and Mongolia.

When the Han Chinese revolted against the Mongol Rule within China under the Flag of the Ming Princes, the Mongol Armies slowly but steadily were forced back, first into northern China, then across the border into Mongolia. The Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD) was declared in China immediatly after the last military defeat had driven Mongol Armies out of
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China through the Jiayu Pass in 1368 AD. This separated China from Mongolia, making both independent and equal states. The Chinese consolidate their positions by building the Jiayuguan Fortress, the westernmost Gate and by reinforcing the rest of the Great Wall of China.
Four years later Toghon Temur (Emperor Huizong), last Yuan Emperor died in Karakorum in Mongolia. The War however rages on north of the Great Wall of China, seeing a last battle between Ming China and regrouped Yuan Dynasty loyalists at Khara-Koto (Black City) in the year 1372 AD. The City was abandoned afterwards. The Chinese conquest of Inner- and Outer-Mongolia continued, and is only completed centuries later during the Qianlong Era of the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD).

Meanwhile, in the year 1330 AD. One Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) is born in Samarkand (Самарқанд) an ancient Silk Road City in current day Uzbekistan. During his life-time Timur reunited Persia and defeated both his neighbours, the Russians and the Golden Horde. The large Nation so built is now known as the so-called Timurid Empire. In 1405 AD Timur Lenk diescausing the collapse of his Empire. Without a clear ruler the Golden Horde breaks away and fragments transforming into a variety of small states.
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