Economy of Zhangjiakou and Prefecture :
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Ethnic Minorities in Zhangjiakou & Prefecture
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This page was last updated on: June 22, 2017
The Zhangjiakou Report
Introduction to Zhangjiakou (张家口)
Zhangjiakou Landmarks & Monuments
Zhangjiakou & Area Maps
Location : 40° 48′ 36″ North 114° 52′ 45″ East
Elevation : 716 meters (2,349 ft)
Surface Area:
City Prefecture of Zhangjiakou - 36,829 Sq Kilometers (14,220 sq miles)
Urban - 254 km2 (98 sq miles)
Population: The Total Population of Zhangjiakou City Prefecture was last counted in 2010 when a total of 4,345,491 Citizens were registered.
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Alphabetically ordered list of Monuments, Landmarks and other sites of interest in and around Zhangjiakou
Although the city of Zhangjiakou cannot pride itself in an abundance of historical landmarks, certainly not according to Chinese standards, nevertheless it can boast a generally well known and rich history as it was one of the four most famous pass cities of the Great Wall of China during the conflict ridden era of the Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD). Thus, the number one landmark and historic monument of the city even today is a part of the Great Wall of China.
To be more specific, the northern gate of the pass city of Zhangjiakou was known as Da Jing Men, which translates as "Gate to the Great Territory". In turn this may be interpreted as that it was the main front door with the hated neighboring Mongolian tribes who had previously ruled over all of China (and its Han majority) in the Yuan Dynasty (1271 AD - 1368 AD). Today as in the past, the Da Jing Men has the greatest symbolic value to flocking of curious visitors and it has become the number one symbol for the city of Zhangjiakou.
Altough altogether there are some thirteen sections of the Great Wall of China within Zhangjiakou Prefecture of Hebei Province, the main interest goes out to the all important front gate of the Zhangjiakou Castle City. An additional location of interest is the town of Xuanhua, which historically served as a fortified town in the rear of the castle holding a garrison in strategic reserve. Today various historic remains can be found of the fortified city of the Ming. In addition there is

Reportedly the ruined remains of all various remaining sections of all era's taken together total more than 1,470 kilometers (913 miles) in length. The Walls and Defenses found in Zhangjiakou and surrounding towns were built over eight dynasties, namely the Warring States Period (476 BC - 221 BC), Qin (221 BC - 206 BC), Han (206 BC- 220 AD), Northern Wei (Also: Tuoba Wei ; 386 AD - 534 AD), Northern Qi (550 AD - 577 AD), Tang (618 AD - 907 AD), Jin (1115 AD - 1234 AD) and finally the Ming (1368 AD - 1644 AD) Dynasties.
There are few other historic landmarks in the City of Zhangjiakou.
First among the true ancient relics of the city is its Temple, the Liuping Si with its standing stone pagoda. The other major landmark is the heavy Ming Dynasty Era (1368 AD - 1644 AD) City Wall of the Pass City of Zhangjiakou. A third historic landmark is the Qingyuan Tower, an impressive former gate topped by an intruiging wooden pavilion, is found in the Xuanhua Township due south-west of Zhangjiakou City proper. As with several other towns surrounding the main fortified Pass City and Gate of the Great Wall of China known as Zhangjiakou, the defenses of this crucial defense area was further enhanced by fortifying all towns in surrounding minor passes leading down to the Qingshui River valley and Zhangjiakou proper. The town of Xuanhua was such a town. Heavily fortified it formed both a gate inside the wide Yang River Valley, the fortification of this town in particular served to defend the rear of the main Fortress at Zhangjiakou.

According to seasoned travelers and fans of the Great Wall of China, the first Landmark anyone should visit within the city of Zhangjiakou is the so-called "Da Jing Men", the Da Jing Gate of the Great Wall of China.

READ MORE IN: "ZHANGJIAKOU GREAT WALL OF CHINA" (Describing all known parts of the Great Wall of China in Zhangjiakou Prefecture).

Liuping Si is situated in the south-eastern suburbs due south of Zhangjiakou Vocational and Technical College.

Found several kilometers due west of Huai'An District Railway Station along G110 / X454 Provincial Road.

Various Landmarks of Zhangjiakou City:
Dianzi Girder, West Castle, Changping Warehouse, Nuanquan College, Nanan Temple Tower, Lingyan Temple of Weizhou, Zhenwu Temple, Weizhou Emperor Jade Cabinet, Shijia Temple.
Public Transport in Zhangjiakou
Main Railroad Station of Zhangjiakou - Photos and Introduction
National Airport at Zhangjiakou - More information
Complete Listing of available Hotels in Zhangjiakou (Kalgan), Hebei Province, China (PRC).
Zhangjiakou has a main railway station as well as  a secondary Train Station. There is no National Level Airport available in Zhangjiakou. Several highways and railroads connect through Zhangjiakou. A high-speed train line from Beijing to Zhangjiakou and onwards (eventually to Mongolia) is under construction and is expected to be available at some time in 2014.

Zhangjiakou is an important communications pivot linking Beijing to Shanxi Province, Hebei Province and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. Its highways are frequently clogged with countless dump trucks carrying coal and other raw materials from the mining zones in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia to the Chinese Provinces where they are put to use in the various industries. Large shipments of coal feed the Zhangjiakou Electric Plant.
With the city as a hub, 4 national highways and 8 provincial-level highways radiate in all directions. In addition the major The Beijing to Baotou and Datong to Beijing railroads cross travel across the city proper.

The city of Zhangjiakou is connected through G6 Jinzhang Expressway to the city of Beijing. G6 Jinzhang Expressway connects from the south-east to the ring road surrounding the city of Zhangjiakou. Due south of Zhangjiakou the G6 Jinzhang Expressway connects and merges with G7 Expressway. Both highways, merged, lead westward away from Zhangjiakou to lead to Ulanqab, the now thoroughly sinified city of Jining in Ulanqab Prefecture of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

The Zhangshi Expressway (G27) leads southward from Zhangjiakou (crossing with G6 Jinzhang Expressway and more to the south G7 (Jingda) Expressway). Several kilometers further on this Expressway splits into the G30 Expressway heading eastward to Datong in north Shanxi Province, and the southbound G18 Rongwu Expressway which currently terminates at the Town of Laiyuan in Baoding Prefecture of Hebei Province. Presumably, the road will be connected further south to the existing Expressway system around the city of Baoding.
In the northern direction the G27 Zhangshi Expressway leaves Zhangjiakou in its north-east corner to pass the towns of Zhangbei and Taibus, where it currently terminates into Provincial Road S207 which leads northward to the city of Xilinhot (Chinese: 锡林浩特) the Capital of the Xilin Gol League (or Banner) of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China.
The city of Zhanjiakou itself is divided in two sections. The eastern section is known as the Xiaodong District, whereas the western section is named the Xiaoxi District.
In addition, the City Prefecture of Zhangjiakou is sub-divided into two additional districts; Xuanhua District and Xiahuayuan District plus a further 13 rural counties (Hsien ; Xian). The rural Counties of Zhangjiakou City Prefecture are: Chicheng County (赤城县), Chongli County (崇礼县), Huai'an County (怀安县), Huailai County (怀来县), Kangbao County (康保县), Guyuan County (沽源县), Shangyi County (尚义县), , Wanquan County (万全县), Xuanhua County (宣化县), Yangyuan County (阳原县), Yu County (蔚县),  Zhangbei County (张北县) and Zhuolu County (涿鹿县).

Going clockwise around, to the north of Zhangjiakou lie Zhangbei County, the largest county in the Prefecture, and further up north Kangbao County both situated in which was once part of (Inner) Mongolia and a territory
Find out the Details in the History of Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou (张家口) is City in Eastern China's Hebei Province. It is situated at around 200 kilometers due north-west of the National Capital of Beijing City. Zhangjiakou (historically also known as Kalgan (Mongolian: Haal Gan) is a prefecture level city, bordering with Ulanqab (Jining) City Prefecture of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the north-east and north, with Beijing City Province in the south-east and on Datong City Prefecture of Shanxi Province (the next station and pass of the Great Wall of China) in the east.

Most standard tour guides on China (P.R.C.) do not contain a chapter on the city of Zhangjiakou and thus with most Foreign tourist the mention of the name of the City of Zhangjiakou will not immediately ring a bell, however for those more acquainted with Chinese history and of course to the Chinese themselves, the name Zhangjiakou is legendary and closely connected with the Great Wall of China and several critical episodes in ancient and epic history. Zhangjiakou, historically better known in Mongolian as "Kalgan", which translates as "Heaven's Gate", was traditionally the main pass and gate between the grasslands of Inner Mongolia (the Mongolian Plateaux) and China's northern plain, since the Yuan Dynasty (1271 AD - 1368 AD) dominated by the Imperial Capital, the city of Beijing. Thus, it was a strategically vital town situated on the border between China and Mongolia.

For most of history of the Ming Dynasty Era (1368 AD - 1644 AD), during the heydays of the Great Wall, Kalgan was a crucial pass and overtime it became heavily fortified. Nevertheless, the City was taken several times in history as Mongol Armies advanced on the Chinese Capital.  During the long reign of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, Kalgan became a main trading post along the economically important "Tea Road", essentially a caravan route which connected to Russian Territory, Ulaanbataar in Mongolia,
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Beijing Regional Map :  Beijing-TangShan-TianJin-ShiJiaZhuang quadrangle, an overview of Beijing Municipality (in Hebei Province) and Area to the East and South-East of Beijing. Includes TangShan, port city of Tianjin, BoHai Sea, GaoZhou, ShiJiaZhuang Crossroads City.
The  ethnic minority groups within Zhangjiakou and City Prefecture are Hui, Man, Mongolian.
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Great Wall of China - East Terminus (Inner Layer) - Old Dragons' Head
Togrog Ul
Dailu Hao
Hua De
Aohan Qi
Jinshanling - Great Wall of China  (Inner Layer) - Old Dragons' Head
PingXing Guan - Great Wall of China - Inner Layer
Yangquan (Pass) - Great Wall of China (Inner Layer) - Shanxi Province
Wu Tai Shan
Xilao Tu Shan
Zhangbei - Great Wall of China  (Inner Layer) - Old Dragons' Head
Western Ching Dynasty Tombs (Qin Xi Ling)
Gaobeidan (Hebei Province)
Zhengding (Hebei Province)
Cangyan Shan (Height unknown Meters
Chengde Imperial Mountain Retreat - Fleeing the Heat Mountain Villa + Affiliated Temples (Ching Dynasty)
Fengrun (Hebei Province)
Eastern Ching Dynasty Tombs (Qing Dang Ling)
Simatai - Great Wall of China  (Inner Layer) - Old Dragons' Head
Wutai Shan Monasteries (Shanxi Province)
Xiao Wutai Shan (Height 2870 Meters
Ruins of Yandu Ancient Capital
Peking Man Site
Yungang Caves - UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site
Zhangjiakou Pass - Dajing Gate & Zhangjiakou City Wall + other sections
Yantong Shan (Height 1109 Meters
Marco Polo Bridge - Lugou Qiao
Ming Tombs (Shisan Ling) Valley
Badaling - Great Wall of China  (Inner Layer) - Old Dragons' Head
Daqing Shan (Height 1155 Meters) - Liaoning Province
Jinan, Capital Shandong Province, Jin'An Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Chengde (Hebei) - Imperial Summer Mountain Retreat, Hebei Province, China (P.R.C.).
Handan, Handan Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
BaoDing, Baoding Prefecture, Hebei Province, China (P.R.C.).
- Click Map to Enlarge to Full Detail -
XuanHua (Hebei Province)
Datong, Datong Prefecture, Shanxi Province, China (P.R.C.).
Inner Mongolia AR
WeiFang, Weifang Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Liaocheng, Liaocheng Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Dezhou, Dezhou Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Tianjin & City Province, China (P.R.C.).
Zibo, Zibo Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Tangshan, Tangshan Prefecture, Hebei Province, China (P.R.C.).
ShiJiaZhuang, Capital of Hebei Province, China (P.R.C.).
Great Wall of China - East Terminus (Inner Layer) - Qinhuangdao/Shanhai Pass
QinHuangDao, Qinhuangdao Prefecture, Hebei Province, China (P.R.C.).
Pinquan (Hebei Province)
Chaoyang (Lioning Province)
Jianping (Liaoning Province)
Du Shan (Height 1677 Meters - Liaoning Province
Chifeng (Inner Mongolia AR)
Shunyi - Beijing Capital International Aiport
Changping Village - 13 Ming Tombs = Shisan Ling
Jixian (Tianjin Mincipality)
Hanggu (Tianjin Mincipality)
Yangcun (Tianjin Mincipality)
Tongxian (Beijing Mincipality)
Huairou (Beijing Municipality)
Miyun (Beijing Municipality)
Longqing Gorge
Wanping Village - Marco Polo Bridge (Lugou Qiao)
Wuling Shan (Height 1270 Meters - Liaoning Province
Yunwu Shan (Height 2520 Meters
Fengzhen Pass - Great Wall of China - Gateway to Inner Mongolia
Hunyuan Monastery in Mid Air - Hanging Monastery (Xuan Gong)
Hunyuan Village (Shanxi Province)
LinliHe' (Beijing Municipality)
Zhoukoudian(zhen) (Beijing Municipality)
Yi Xian (Hebei Province)
Baihua Shan (Height 1991 Meters
GubeiKou (Beijing Municipality)
Yellow Cliff - Great Wall of China  (Inner Layer)
Pan Shan (Height - unknown Meters)
Sanhe (Hebei Province)
Tanggu, Tianjin Municipality, China (P.R.C.).
Vairocana Monasteries (Shanxi Province)
Xiabancheng (Hebei Province)
Chengzhi (Beijing Municipality)
Xiahuayuan (Hebei Province)
Binzhou (Shandong Province)
Huimin (Shandong Province)
DaYun He
Bohai Sea
Laizhou Bay
Guantao (Hebei Province)
GaoTang (Shandong Province)
Hengshui (Hebei Province)
Nangong (Hebei Province)
Zhaoxian (Hebei Province)
Yangquan (Shanxi Province)
Xushui (Hebei Province)
Dingxing (Hebei Province)
Ulanqab (Jining), Ulanqab Prefecture, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China (P.R.C.).
Fengning (Hebei Province)
Weichang (Hebei Province)
Kangbao (Hebei Province)
Longhua (Hebei Province)
Cangzhou (Hebei Province)
DongYing (Shandong Province)
Changzhi (Shanxi Province)
Yanmen Guan - Great Wall of China - Gateway to Inner Mongolia
Dingzhou (Hebei Province)
Xintai (Hebei Province)
NanLe (Henan Province)
Anyang, Anyang Prefecture, Henan Province, China (P.R.C.).
LingQing (Shandong Province)
Huai'An (Hebei Province)
Baochang (Inner Mongolia AR)
Duolun (Inner Mongolia AR)
Hua De (Inner Mongolia AR)
Shangdu (Inner Mongolia AR)
Togrog Ul (Inner Mongolia AR)
Dailu Hao (Inner Mongolia AR)
Aohan Qi (Inner Mongolia AR)
Harqin Qi (Inner Mongolia AR)
Harqin Qi
Luanping (Hebei Province)
Linzi (Shandong Province)
Laiwu, Laiwu Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Boxing (Shandong Province)
Yiyuan (Shandong Province)
Linqui (Shandong Province)
Gaomi (Shandong Province)
Laizhou, --- Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
Taiqian (Henan Province)
Shenxian (Shandong Province)
The city of Zhangjiakou has a continental monsoon climate with the heat and rain arriving in the same season, mainly the months of June and August. The weather is cool in summer and cold in winter. Zhangjiakou is considered a sunny but also rather windy city. In spring time the regions are frequently plagued by yellow cloud dust storms bringing in the dust blown from the yellow river basin and the gobi deserts of the west.

In summer its average temperature is 23.2 degrees centigrade which has resulted in a situation in which Beijing City dwellers have come to see Zhangjiakou as a sort of summer holiday resort for escaping the blistering heat of the Capital in its hottest months.
Tianjin, City Province
Schematic Map depicting the multiple layers of the Great Wall of circling Beijing and North and North-East China.
Datong, Shanxi Province
Lanzhou, Gansu Province
Old Dragon's Head - East Terminus at QinhuangDao
Xining, QingHai Province
Xi'An, Shaanxi Province
Zhengzhou, Capital of Henan Province
Jinan, Capital of Shandong Province
Hohhot, Capital of Inner Mongolia AR
Yinchuan, Capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Beijing, Capital of China
TaiYuan, Capital of Shanxi Province
YanMenguan Pass at Datong, Shanxi Province
JiaYu Guan, Gansu Province
Zhangye, Gansu Province
Wuwei, Gansu Province
GanDan, Gansu Province
Shenyang, Capital of Liaoning Province
Yulin, Shaanxi Province
Shijiazhuang, Capital of Hebei province
To Zhangjiakou Maps Index
There are no maps available of Zhangjiakou City. There are howeveral several Maps of the Region available at this Time.
Zhangjiakou Hotels
- Blue Whale Hotel.
- Boalong International Hotel.

- Grand Sun City Hotel:
  Situated on the west bank of the Qingshui River in the downtown area of Zhangjiakou.

- GreenTree Inn Zhangjiakou Coach Station Express Hotel:
  Recommended for location near Main North Train Station.

- Lidu Business Hotel.
- Meiyi Garden Hotel: Situated along Shenghua West Street.

- Jiaotong Hotel, in Central city due south-east of Peoples Park at Shengli North Road.

- Jinjiang Inn Peoples Park:
  Highly recommended due to its location near central Peoples' Park.

- Jinjiang Inn Zhangjiakou North Station: recommended for location near Main North Train Station.

- Ximeng Hotel.
ZhangJiaKou - Kalgan (Hebei Province)
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Central Asia and Europe beyond. In the beginning of the 20th Century, briefly before and after the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 911 AD) Zhangjiakou became popular as the starting point for European and American expeditions into Inner Mongolia and the wild territories beyond. During the Republican Era" it was a hapless trading station known as Zhāngyuán (張垣). Later on, in 1945 Zhangjiakou saw the arrival of Russian Troops and was a de facto border town between Chinese and Russian territory before a late Russian withdrawal into the Republic of Mongolia.

Today's Kalgan has once more become Zhangjiakou a thoroughly Chinese, growing, mostly drab, industrial city with well over 4 million citizens. Nevertheless the city is a minor but important tourist destination due to its legends and history connected to the Great Wall of China. Some ruins of the mostly Ming Dynasty Era Great Wall of China remain scattered in the area's around the city, although many fortified positions and parts of the multiple layers of the defenses created in the Ming Dynasty have been demolished, their bricks re-used in the building of housing for local farmers who since the 19th century have progressively colonized and sinified the regions.

Zhangjiakou is headquarters of the 65th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the five group armies (or field armies) that comprise the Beijing Military Region consisting of: 21st Group Army, 24th, 63rd, 65th Group Army, 66th, 69th corps, which together are responsible for
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mostly consisting of deserted grasslands and loess terraces. Adjacent on to the east lie Chongli County and Guyuan County.
Due east of Zhanjiakou's Urban districts lies Chicheng county which in turn borders with (the northern tip of) Beijing City Province.
To the south and south-east of the city lies Xuanhua County, with further out the small Xuanhuayuan District, Hualai County and Zhuolu County. Hualai County and Zhuolu County then border on Beijing City Province and notably the town of Huailai lies only 20 kilomters from the outskirts of Beijing.
In the extreme south of Zhangjiakou Prefecture one foinds Yu County, which is also the most well populated county with some 460.000 citizens. Yu County borders to the north-west with Yangyuan County. Yangyuan County in turn has a narrow border with Huai'An County in the north and a much longer border with the Datong Prefecture of Shanxi Province in the east. Huai'An County is situated south west of urban Zhangjiakou.
Finally, to the west of Zhangjiakou City lies Wanquan County with more to the north-west Shangyi County.

Traditionally a water scarce city the growth of Zhangjiakou in the recent urbanization and modernization of the Chinese Nation has stressed the local water resources to the maximum.
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Map showing the 7 Military Commands or Districts in China including the District of Lanzhou which extends all the way to the West and includes Xinjiang AR and parts of Tibet (historical).
- Zhangjiakou Justice Bureau

- Zhangjiakou is headquarters of the 65th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Beijing Military Region responsible for defending China's capital. The other such groups in defense and control of the Capital are the 27th Army Group stationed in Shijiazhuang, the Capital of Hebei Province, and the 38th Army Group with its barracks in Baoding, Hebei Province.

The 65Th Army Group is composed of a direct control and command unit (communications (or signalling) regiment, engineering regiment and the 85th Boating Regiment), which directs the 193rd Division (80th, 82nd, 188th and 235 Infantry Brigade), an artillery division (since 2010 including the new trucked-mounted 122mm howitzers sometimes designated as SP-3 or SH-3), an armored brigade known as the 1st Armor Division (1st Armor Regiment, 2nd Armor Regiment, 3rd Armor Regiment and an Artillery Regiment), two motorized infantry brigades (70Th and 196Th), the additional 193rd Motorized Infantry Division (577th Regiment, 579th Regiment, Armor Regiment, Artillery Regiment) , and an anti-aircraft artillery brigade.
The unit ID number of the 65Th Group Army is 66455.
According to and other sources the 65th Group Army of the Chinese Peoples' Liberation Army traces its lineage to its original incarnation, the 5th Column of the North China Field Army, which was first established at sometime around 1946 AD. It was initially composed of three brigades, the 13th, 14th, and 15th. In 1949 upon the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China the unit was reorganized and redesignated as the 65th Army which at the time was placed under the command of Hsiao Ying-t'ang. In 1949 the 65th Army was composed of the 193rd, 194th and 195th Divisions.

The 65th Army was deployed to Korea in 1951. Following the Korean War the 65th Army was redeployed to Hebei in 1953. Subsequently, in 1965 the 65th Corps while in Hopei was replaced by the 38th Corps.

Situated in the center of a historic strategic cross-roads due north-west of Beijing, the 65th Army Group is the main army group in a blocking position versus Mongolian Territories and the Russian Federation beyond.
In 2002, the formation's ID number was changed from 50156 to 66455. (The designation of China's group army is no longer confidential information to the public as of January 15, 2013, reported by CCTV news Tuesday Januari 17 of 2013).
A battalion of new trucked-mounted 122mm howitzers or SP-3 or SH-3 were deployed with the 193rd Motorized Infantry Division of the 65th Group Army to the so called "Peace Mission 2010" exercise which was held in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in September 2010.
Hebei North University:
Zhangjiakou is home to Hebei North University. The university has been improving its international network and relatively near the National Capital Beijing this University is now popular among foreign students. According to Hebei North University they have an active co-operation with many Universities, mainly in Asia, Europe, Australia and USA. Most of the co-operative ventures with Universities are research oriented and others involve in the exchange of students. The Educational programs at HeBei North University are centered around a comprehensive range of research-based degree programs. The University is internationally recognized, attracting undergraduate and postgraduate students from all over the world. In addition Each year many of HeBei North University staff members are sent to abroad to acquire foreign experience and in exchange foreign specialists come to Zhangjiakou to spend time at Hebei North University.

Additional educational facilities:
- Gongrencun Elementary School
- Hebei Yangxin Elementary School, south-east city north adjacent of Vocational and Technical College.
- South Unit Elementary School
- Ningyuan Eelementary School
- Xiaoxinzhuang Elementary School, west city.

- Wangjaizhai School, west city.
- Houjiamiao Middle School, Xuanhua District
- Xuanhua No.1 Middle School, south-east suburbs, along Zhangxuan highway.
- Yaojiafangzhen Middle School
- Zhangjiakou FEOSO Middle School, south city west of railway emplacements.

- Zhangjiakou Vocational and Technical College, due south-east of city and north of Liuping Temple
  (Liuping Si).
- Zhangjiakou Employees University

- Yifu Library (City Library)
Zhangjiakou is located at the juncture of the Hengshan Mountain range, the Taihang Mountains and the Yanshan Mountains. The northern parts of Zhangjiakou Prefecture are surrounded by plateaus, forming a rough and beautiful natural scenery. For the reason of its particular geography and the fact that it was strategic point so heavily fortified that it became of fortress city, Zhangjiakou city acquired the nickname of "Mountain City north of the Great Wall". During the heydays of the Great Wall of China in the Ming Dynasty it was one of the main Fortress Cities (Pass Cities) along its 5000 kilometer pathway to the west.

The largest river in Zhangjiakou Prefecture is the Yang River (Yang He), which flows from west to east due south of the cities' urban area. Flowing east to south-eastward from Zhangjiakou past Jiming Mountain, the Yang He river eventually terminates in the Guanting Reservoir in the north of Beijing City Province, an important fresh water supplying the city of Beijing.
The second largest river is the Qingshui River which flows through the city from north to south after passing through the now mostly ruined Great Wall of China at Dajing Gate. In the southern regions of the city the name of the Qingshui river changes into Tongqiao River, in fact the same flow of water, which then travels further southward to merge with the Yang river in Wanquan District due south of Zhangjiakou city.
The third river in Zhangjiakou is the Longyang River, which flows down from the north-east to pass along the south-eastern parts of the urban area of Zhangjiakou. As with the Qingshui/Tongqiao River it merges with the Yang River just south of the city.
Finally, the fourth river in Zhangjiakou Prefecture is the Sanggan River, which flows west to east at some distance south of Zhangjiakou City. After flowing through the town of Zhuolu it also merges with the Yang River near Wenquantun Village (Wenquantun Xiang) due south-west of Huailai Town.

As for the city of Zhangjiakou itself, the city slopes downwards from the north-west towards the south-east. With the Qingshui River flowing through its center from north to south, the Yinshan Mountains traverse the center of the city in the direction east-west and so naturally separate today's cityscape into two parts. In the past, during the heydays of the Great Wall of China in the later reigns of the Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD), this became the ultimate basis of extensive defenses of the pass Zhangjiakou, which became a heavily fortified Pass City, and all surrounding passes.
The north part of Zhangjiakou is located on the extreme southern edge of Mongolian Plateau, wheras the south part is a transition area between the North China Plain and Mongolian Plateau with hills as its main topography. Here the landscape slowly lowers as it meets the Yang River valley which runs west to east.
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Due to the historic importance of railway transport to the heavy industry in the city of Zhangjiakou and the wider regions, Zhangjiakou has always been a well connected city. Today Zhangjiakou has two main train stations. For ease of comprehension these are designated the North Main Station and the South Main Station. The northern station was the first railway station in Zhangjiakou and hence it is officially known as Zhangjiakou Station (Zhangjiakou Station). In addition there are a number of minor sub-stations in the city and outlying county towns.
Main Railroad Station of Zhangjiakou - Photos and Introduction
Zhangjiakou can either be reached through Beijing Capital International Airport situated in the north-eastern suburb of Shunyi, or through Datong National level airport in Datong city in the adjacent Datong Prefecture of Shanxi Province.
Beijing Capital Airport largest airport in north China - More information
defending China's capital. The famed 65th army group saw action in the Korean War (1951 - 53).
Zhangjiakou is situated in a region known for its rich mineral resources and is traditionally known as a mining area. Among the industries of the city is a gold mine. Currently the most famous and perhaps most succesful business in Zhangjiakou is the world renowned Great Wall Wining Company which has its headquarters in Shacheng Town of Huailai County.
Apparently a Beijing Zhangjiakou Nan ShanEconomic Development Zone exists. Established in 1992, Hebei Zhangjiakou Economic Development Zone was upgraded as a provincial level development zone in 2000. This economic zone currently covers 5 square kilometers but is planned to be doubled in size in the near future. It is situated only 1.5km away from the main (north) railway station. Its leading industries include machinery, biomedicine and chemicals. Encouraged industries in the Nanshan Zone are: Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing.
Another Economic Developement Zone can be found in Huailai County due south of Zhangjiakou city proper neared the main highways leading to Beijing.

The Prefecture of Zhangjiakou is proven to have 11 large geological mineral deposits and over 1,200 mineralizing centers. Among the minerals found are gold, coal, lead, zinc, phosphorus and five other minerals. As such, the location of Zhangjiakou ranks first among the mineral rich locations within Hebei Province.

In the northern territories of Zhangjiakou Prefecture one finds some agriculture and animal breeding. On the sparse remaining grasslands one can find horses, red grassland oxen.
Local products include Hebei fine wool which has now been developed as a "National Brand". Up on the hill slopes and in the many valleys there are many kinds of wild plants including mountain hazel, wild jujube and sea buckhorn. Special Local Products of Zhangjiakou Prefecture are: Matsutake, large-flat apricot and niunai (milk) grape.

"Economy of Zhangjiakou".
Tiger Mountain Great Wall - Dandong, Dandong Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China (P.R.C.).
The earliest historical mentions of place now known as Zhangjiakou dates back well over two millenia. As recorded and preserved in Chinese Tombs, maps and writings, in the so-called Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC - 476 BC) which led to the final demise of the Zhou Dynasty (1121 BC - 255 BC), the northern parts of the current day Prefecture of Zhangjiakou were grasslands claimed by the mighty and notorious Huns, a pre-Mongolian nomadic tribe of now legendary military prowess. At the same, the Southern parts of today's Zhangjiakou Prefecture was a territory claimed by the early Chinese Yan Kingdom. At the very end of this "Warring States Period" all seperate Kingdoms and States had been conquered by the militarily strong state of Qin uniting them into what is held to be the first ever united Chinese State with a centrally administered system. In the process, where today's Zhangjiakou was previously part of Yan, where it was a border town, it was now part of the Chinese Qin Empire. The Qin Era, although very brief left a lasting imprint on Zhangjiakou and its prefecture.
During the Ming Dynasty, after Mongolian Tribes and their armies had been ejected from China, Zhangjiakou became the crucial strategic pass that was a heavy fortress of the Great Wall of China. The famous Dajing Gate was but in 1458 AD and as the rule of the Ming Progressed Zhangjiakou became the central fortress of what was in fact a multi-layered defense inside a border region heavily plagued by incursions and several times the subject of massive Mongolian invasions. Although today Zhangjiakou is fast developing as a satellite industrial hub for the mega-metropolis and will soon be no longer disconnected from the Capital by the mountainous barriers of the past, tourist visitors still flock to Zhangjiakou to browse about and be reminded of the grandiose days of the fortress city.

A Local Cultural Treasure of Zhangjiakou City and Prefecture are the much appreciated paper cuttings of Yuxian County.

Longfu Si, north of Zhulo Town center along S342 Provincial Road, due  south of its intersection with the large G7 Jinzhang Expressway (the main Beijing to Zhangjiakou Highway).
Gao Temple (Gao Miao); found between Zhuolu Town and the Yang River (Yang He).

Shuri Kannondo Temple and Temple village are situated in rural parts of south east Zhangjiakou Prefecture, along X412 County Road which leads north east out of Xiahuayuan Town.

The Wuhua Meadow is another prairie and grasslands area which has been protected and which has become a popular tourist destination. It is found in Guyuan County of Zhangjiakou Prefecture.

The Lightning River Wetland Park is considered to be number one scenic zone on the highlands along the southern edge of the Mongolian Plateux in Hebei Province. With its astounding natural beauty and unique scenery for these regions it is no doubt also the best preserved highland wetlands area closest to China's capital Beijing.

Little Wutai Mountain Nature Reserve is a comprehensive tourist destination boasting forest parks, gorges, crags, peaks, caves, and strange stones that worth of exploring.

Cuiyunshan Skiing Resort is a perfect winter resort located in the Heping Forest Park situated at some 60 kilomters driving from Zhangjiakou. Posted on Cuiyun Mountain there are currently six different slopes to choose from. The skiing season is betwen (half) November, depending on snowfall, to March the next year.
Apart from skiing there are a variety of other resort type activities to choose from for your entertainment.

Zhangjiakou Wanlong Ski Resort is situated at a short distance due south west of Cuiyun Shan Ski Resort. Visitors can stay over at the Shuanglong Hotel which lies on the eastern sideof the resort town.

The Wolong Shan Amusement Park can be found situated due north-east of Zhangjiakou city proper in a town named Chongli. It is  found near Cuiyunshan Ski Resort and situated along the east side of the Qingshui River and along S242 Provincial Road at some 60 kilometers driving out of Zhangjiakou.
To Get here: First find the S242 Road which leads past the Da Jing Gate of the Great Wall of China. After locating Da Jing Gate drive on for several kilomters on S242. Road signs will show both Zhangjiakou Wanlong Ski Resort and Wolongshan Amusement Park. Follow the signs but drive past the exit towards Wanlong Ski Resort and remain on S242 Provincial Road. After half a kilometer the Amusement Park comes into view.
Other travel options include the Bus Line to Chongli Village and its Bus Station. It is a well organized route however the Bus station is situated at the center of town (north of primary school) whereas the amusement park lies at the north end. Ask the Bus Driver to take you little bit beyond and get off at the Holiday Inn Hotel and the Resort.
Hotel Options include the on site Chongli Dream Holiday Inn "Special Fountain".

Other scenic spots of the Region:  Yunquan Temple, Woniu Mountain Scenic Area, Water Villa.

As described in more detail in our section "Great Wall of China in Zhangjiakou Prefecture", during the Ming Dynasty when the last version of the Great Wall of China was built in stone, Zhangjiakou served as a highly important "Pass City" (a huge fortress serving as a border gate as well) while at the same time, the length of the Great Wall extended to the east and to the west of it. Noteably, there was not just one Great Wall, but in fact no less than 3 "Layers" of the Great Wall of China in sequence were constructed for defense and traverse the wider regions.
Although not many tour operators (not even regionally) focus on this fact, this means that ruined remains of the Great Wall of China can be seen and found throughout Zhangjiakou Prefecture's rural area's and beyond. The main tourist magnet of Zhangjiakou is the Gate to the Great Territory (Da Jing Men), which in ancient times (well into the 20th century) formed the front gate of the city and also of the Chinese Territories.
However, what is not made clear to most visiting tourists is that in fact, this claim of being the outermost door is not entirely correct. An outer layer of the Great Wall of China curves around Zhangjiakou and passes well north of Da Jing Men. Thus, in reality, the outermost front gate stood at a small town today known as Shanfangbu ( north of Wanquan) where it can still be visited. It is an under advertized site which means that anyone interested in doing so will have to make their own way to the location.

The outermost layer of the Great Wall of China in Zhangjiakou Prefecture comes from the west and curves up and around the pass city of Zhangjiakou to reach Shanfangbu. From this position due north of Zhangjiakou City it winds its way in a north eastern direction climbing into the mountains. Ultimately, although hard to trace and no longer continuous,  it connects to the Great Wall section of Dushikou. Dushikou is situated far to the north east of Zhangjiakou city in rural and mountainous terrain and a remote but excellent place to explore a "rough section" of the Great Wall of China.

Other interesting remains of the defenses arranged in the area are found at Xuanhua Town situated along the Jinzang Expressway to Beijing, due south east of Zhangjiakou city.
Alphabetically ordered list of Monuments, Landmarks and other sites of interest in and around Zhangjiakou
Overview Hebei Province, Tianjin- and Beijing City Provinces
Hebei Province Map 2 - Schematic Map - Large
A schematic overview of North-East China's Hebei Province entire, delineating Provincial Borders and parts of neighboring Shanxi-, LiaoNing- and Shandong Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The Map clearly marks the location of Qinhuangdao and gives an overview of the remaining Great Wall sections in the surrounding regions.

View Great Wall China Locations Map - DrBen.Net in a larger map
A Full Google Earth Supported Map Overview of All Structures of the Great Wall of China from East to West, by DrBen.Net (c) and
Jinan, Capital Shandong Province, Jin'An Prefecture, Shandong Province, China (P.R.C.).
ZhangJiaKou - Kalgan (Hebei Province)
Tianjin & City Province, China (P.R.C.).
The Dragon Spring Temple (Longchun Si) is situated at quite some distance (30km) south east of Zhangjiakou City where it is situated on the northern slope of the Jiantou Mountain.
To Get There: Follow G207 highway to the town of Zuowei Zhen. In Zuowei Town, turn westward onto X454 County Road. Follow X454 past the local Amai Golf Club until reaching  a small town known as Diliu Tun (Xiang). At Diliu Tun follow the main road southward towards the mountains. At the very end of it stands the Dragon Spring Temple.

Another main scenic site within Zhangjiakou Prefecture are the now much whithered Bashang Prairies situated in Zhangbei County. In history the Bashang Prairie was one of the several hunting grounds of the emperors in Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD) in the regions surrounding their Capital Beijing. Although until the end of the 20th century a place of extraordinary natural beauty and pristine prairie landscape. More recently, the Bashang Prairies have fallen victim to a rampant wave of mass tourism followed by a burst of development projects in the area. Already a fragile eco-system under severe stress from drought, advancing deserts and effects of pollution caused upwind, reportedly the Prairies have been unable to cope. Still advertized as the perfect getaway for the city middle class, party affiliated rich, or anyone else willing to buy, development projects have taken over and established a "resort stay" market on the Bashan Prairies.
Medical Facilities:
- Zhangjiakou Trauma Hospital. Location: southern suburbs, 110 National Road.
- Xuancong Hospital, south-east suburbs, Xuanhua Town.
- Xuancai Hospital, south-east suburbs, Xuanhua Town.

Industry and Energy Sector:
The core industry in Zhangjiakou is the energy sector. The Zhangjiakou General Power Plant, with an installed capacity of 2.88 million kw, is currently one of the largest thermal power plants in north China. Zhangjiakou's industrial system includes machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, light and textile industries, coal, building material, leather, fur, brewing and foodstuffs. (See: Economy of Zhangjiakou)

According to China Telecom and City Governement web resources a 50,000 program-controlled telephone has been put into operation, which now provides access for mobile direct calls to all of China (P.R.C.) and its global network reaching over 130 countries and cities in the world.
Fully updated Beijing to Zhangjiakou Train Schedule (various trains & times)
Full Schedule of Trains from Beijing West Railway Station to Zhangjiakou Main Station (Zhangjiakou North Station) and Vice Versa. Check the schedule through below button. Opens in New Window.
Learn More about the Ethnic Nationalities in Zhangjiakou
Economy of Zhangjiakou and Prefecture of Hebei Province
China Report - Map of the Great Wall during the Ming Dynasty
Satellite image of China and North-East Asia, with a super-imposed schematic Map of the location and Path of the Great Wall as constructed during the Reign of the Ming Dynasty. Included for reference are City names, geographical features of landscape, Names and locations of Passes on the Great Wall of China.
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                        YouTube Video: Beijing to Zhangjiakou Train.
Click to Go to Large Scale Map 1A
ZhangJiaKou - Kalgan (Hebei Province)
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