Geographic & Historic Maps on JiaYuGuan City, Great Wall of China, nearby Gobi Desert Satellite Image, including the position of JiaYuGuan Fortress, TaoLai Gorge, Extended Arm Great Wall and More of the Surounding Area's.
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This page was last updated on: July 26, 2017
The JiaYuGuan Report
Introduction to JiaYuGuan
JiaYuGuan City & Area Maps
JiaYuGuan Basic Knowledge

Location : (39°49'12"N   98°17'59"E)
Elevation : 5385 Feet/ 1662 Meters (Average between 1500 to 1800 Meters).
Surface Area: 2,935 sq kilometers
Population:The Total Population of JiaYuGuan Prefecture is around 160,000 (several other sources claim between 130.000 to 200,000) of which some 120.000 live in the urban center of the City.
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A Satellite image of China and East-Asia, with a super-imposed schematic Map of the location and Path of the Great Wall as constructed during the Reign ofthe Ming Dynasty. Included for reference are City names, geographical features
of landscape, Names and locations of Passes on the Great Wall on the Great Wall of China.
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Please browse around the City of JiaYuGuan and wider Area using our Geographic & Historic Maps. Overview JiaYuGuan City and Surrounding Area's, then find out more by Linking through to our many Photographic Reports on the main Historic landmarks and Monuments of JiaYuGuan, and their rich history.
JiaYuGuan Transportation & Connections
How to get There and How to Get Around ...
Read More on How to Reach JiaYuGuan and then how to Best Get Around the City of JiaYuGuan and visit the various landmarks and monuments in the Vicinity. Details on the Trains from JiaYuGuan Railway Station, the Destinations reachable via JiaYuGuan Airport, Bus Lines and More.
Railroad Crossing and Remnants of the Ming Dynasty Era Great Wall of China just West of JiaYuGuan City in Gansu Province.
Sound Bonus: "Theme from The Silk Road", by Kitaro.
JiaYuGuan Landmarks & Monuments
Browse around the Various Landmarks & Monuments of JiaYuGuan City !
Among the Main Monuments and Landmarks of JiaYuguan are first and foremost the well-known Jiayu Pass, JiaYu Guan Fortress and Great Wall Defenses including the suspended or Overhanging section of the Great Wall, and the First Beacon Tower of the Ming Dynasty Era Great Wall of China.
Other sites of interest are the multiple beacon tower relics in the vicinity of the City, the Museum of the Great Wall of China at JiaYuGuan Pass which has been relocated to a spot within the JiaYuGuan UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site, the Xincheng Frescoes, the Wei- & Jin-Dynasty Era Desert Tombs, the Qiyi or July the 1st Glacier, the Gobi desert and its landscape including the Red Liulin and the Elegant Dan Landforms, the Wenshu Mountain Grotto, the Heishan Mountain Grotto and Rock Carvings and last but not least the International Gliding Base. Recently, in July 2008 the main part of the Blue Sea Pearl Tower was completed in Jiayuguan. Although construction is not finished the Blue Sea Pearl
See some of the Rest of JiaYuGuan - Old Streets of an Industrial City in the Desert ...
All Online Sources for Our Reports on JiaYuGuan, Gansu province, PRC
JiaYuGuan & City Today :

The City of Jiayuguan today is not located at exactly the same spot as the JiaYuGuan
of the Ming Dynasty which today is mainly respresented by the Fortress. The small City entered a new Era when, in 1958 AD, the Jiuquan combined Steel & Iron Company was established in the city. Since that year, a new City of JiaYuGuan has arisen to the South and East of the Fortress and Spring Lake thriving on the economic opportunities provided by this massive steel factory and affiliated industries.
After its establishment in the 1950's, the JiuQuan Iron and Steel Company developed into the largest combined Iron & Steel Factory complex in North-West China becoming by far the largest employer and economic engine of the City & Prefecture. Its facilities operate with the capacity to produce more than 2 million tons of crude steel and nearly 3 million tons of rolled steel each year.

Natural Resources of JiaYuGuan & Area :
In the area of Jiayuguan 21 kinds of mineral reserves have been explored in more than 40 places. Among the most abundant resources found are iron, manganese, copper, gold, limestone, mirabilite, moulding fluorite, and barite. Most mining activities are to the South-West of the City where the high mountains of the Qilian Range point their peaks skyward. It is estimated that the Jingtie Mountain iron ore reserve found there has a total capacity of 4,830,00 tons. With a productive capacity of 5,000 tons of Ore daily the already established Mine near JiaYuGuan is the biggest tunnel-digged Mining Operation in China entire.
Somewhere else in the vicinity of JiaYuGuan operates the Xigou Limestone Ore Mine, which is a spectacular opencast mining operation with expected deposits 2,060,000 tons. Xigou Limestone Mine has an annual output of 800,000 tons. A Third and last large Mine, digging for fluorite deposits operates at Dacaotan. The total deposit of moulding
JiaYuGuan City Hotels
JiaYuGuan Online Sources
Find out even more on JiaYuGuan City and surrounding Area's of JiaYuGuan Prefecture of Gansu Province by browsing our Online Sources. The Listing includes all Online Sources used in the creation of this Report.
History of JiaYuGuan :

JiaYuGuan is a small provincial city in the Far West of West-China's Gansu Province with a Long History of more than 2000 years. Today a modestly sized dusty Heavy Industrial Town in the Gobi Desert rocklands, JiaYuGuan City has an important name in history and is one of the important destinations on the Silk Road in China (P.R.C.).

The City of JiaYuGuan was dirst established as a Municipality in 1965 AD when it was only a modest town. At the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1978 AD, the veil of Time was lifted from the ancient Oasis City and due to its historic connection to both the Great Wall of China and the Silk Road, JiaYuGuan was among the First Cities in the Nation to be put on the list of destinations in China where the National Government allowed Foreigners to travel freely.
JiaYuGuan Climate & Weather :

As Jiayuguan is located in the warm variable zone, it has an arid climate. There is a frost-free period of 160 days.
Rainfall: annual precipitation 100 millimeters, with rainfall concentrated in summer.

Average Temperature: January is the coldest month in JiaYuGuan with average temperatures going as low as - 21 Celsius (-5.8F), August is the hottest month with an average temperature as high as 34 Celsius (93F). The overall Annual Average Temperature in JiaYuGuan is low, a mere 6.7 to 7.7 Degrees Celsius. Daily difference in temperature can be large in this Desert in between of High Mountains. Night Time temperatures are generally cold, whereas during daylight, even in winter temperatures can soar.
Rapid changes in weather can occur when air currents change and reach the mountains.
Sandstorm in the Hexi Corridor mainly occur in spring - generally in the period from March to May; Strong Winds occur frequently in the Hexi Corridor, especially in November and December.
JiaYuGuan Prefecture :
Jiayuguan City is only small part of the Larger JiaYuGuan Prefecture in West Gansu Province. JiaYuGuan Prefecture of Gansu Province measures 40 km from east to west and 35 km from north to south. Its total surface area is 2935 square kilometers. The City urban area makes up only 60 square kilometers of this. The Prefecture has 6 Districts and 3 Townships.

Rivers: TaoLai River.
Water supply : Hei Shan Hu Reservoir.

Transportation : See JiaYuGuan Transportation Introduction - Click Here !
View of the Modern Sports stadium of JiaYuGuan City with the snowcapped Tops of the Qilian Shan Range as a backdrop.
Throughout the long years of the Ming Dynasty, the JiaYuGuan fortress was the Key to protecting the last frontier of the Chinese Empire. It was the outermost frontier of the Empire where only traders and soldiers would venture. Those who were condemned into Exile were sent off from the Fortress West Gate into the Deserts, Mountains and Dangers that lay beyond.
Gansu Map 1 - Geographical Overview Map of Gansu Province and Neighboring Regions. Includes Main Cities and Villages of Interest, Main Monuments and Sites and Main Mountains with Heights in Meters.
JiaYuGuan derives its place in history not from its grand size but from its strategic location inside the Hexi Corridor.
The Hexi Corridor is strategic mountain pass corridor which givess access from Central Asia, along the Tarim River, through Gansu Province and its Capital Lanzhou, directly to the Central Provinces of China. Located in between the Qilian Mountain Range in the South and the Mazhong (Horse's Manes) Mountains in the North, the Hexi Corridor begins around Dunhuang in West Gansu Province from where it travels south-eastward via JiaYuGuan and Wuwei to Lanzhou to end at the Yellow River. Thus the Hexi Corridor forms an easily traveled natural highway between otherwise impassable mountains. In history this bottleneck was an unavoidable stop-over on the Silk Road and has been known as a vital crossroads and communication point of Cultures.

JiaYuGuan as a City, was at first a settlement on the Silk Road, an encampment near an oasis which was located in the narrowest part of the Hexi Corridor Pathway. Named JiaYu Guan, during the First Reign of Ming Dynasty, the Cities name later became synonymous with the Grand Fortress and Bastion at the End of the Great Wall of China in the Far West, a Fortress that was built to block the entrance
of the Hexi Corridor from Invasions by the notorious Nomadic Tribes that lived beyond. As the home of one of the Three Main Fortresses on the Great Wall; Shanhai Guan in the East, JiYongGuan near Beijing, and JiaYu Guan in the West, the City is known throughout China (P.R.C.) and gained historic fame as the "Magnificent Pass Under Heaven" for the rugged beauty of its far flung location.

For More on the History of JiaYuGuan - Click Here !
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JiaYuGuan's economic mainstay, the JiuQuan Steel & Iron combined Factory, the largest such Factory Complex in North-west China.
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Make a Selection of available Hotels ...
A Short Listing and Reviews of the few Main Hotels in JiaYuGuan City, West Gansu.
Tower is expected to become the latest Hit among JiaYuGuan's tourist venues.

For a Full listing of JiaYuGuan City Landmarks, Monuments, Hotspots and other sites of importance in alphabetical order - Click Here !. Search through the list to find your Full Report and Photo-Virtual Tour of each monument or landmark within the City or Area of JiaYuGuan, Gansu Province.
fluorite in Dacaotan is estimated to be around 98 Thousand tons. Last but not least, the JiaYuGuan Area is richly endowed by mirabilite and other mineral resources which could be exploited in the Future. Among these are chromium, maganese, fluor spar and iceland spar.

As a result of the economic Boom of the 1990s and the new Millenium in which rampant construction produced an unparalleled demand for Steel, JiaYuGuan has grown even further. In the process the City has drawn even more migrants to its huge factory. Other Industries have joined JiaQuan Steel at this remote location in the Western Deserts, among which the Gansu Jiuquan Iron & Steel (Group) Co. Ltd., Hongxing Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Jiayuguan Zhongtie Industrial (Group) Co. Ltd, Jiuquan Iron & Steel (Group) Co. Ltd.  , Gansu Qiyuan Chemical Industry Co. Ltd Jiugang Enterprise Corp., Tianzheng Group Jiayuguan Tianzheng Electric Co. Ltd
and JiaYuGuan Xinrui Fine Chemical Co., LTD.
Most are affiliated industries of the large Iron & Steel works, other City industries concentrate on the production of Cement and Fertilizer. Iron ore and coking coal to fuel the giant JiuQuan Steel Complex and Energy Plants are mined in
All in all JiaYuGuan in 2009 AD is a growing industrial city oddly flourishing in a desert wasteland. With its large iron & steel production base, growing tourism and international attention and backed by large scale infrastructure projects launched by the Provincial and National Governments, JiaYuGuan is growing and fast developing a modern city face. Its best example and showpiece of architecture is located at XiongGuan Plaza. Other developments are seen around the Spring Lake of JiaYuGuan Fortress, an area that is growing into a beach resort and recreational area. Ambitions seem large, however, being a desert City in a Gansu with a changing Climate, JiaYuGuan already struggles to supply its citizens with water.
Much of JiaYuGuan's future depends on its water supply.
the nearby mountains. Furthermore, in its growing need of energy JiaYuGuan became the Home to a Nuclear Powerplant and there is a hydropower station which makes use of the fast flowing waters of the TaoLai River which flows through a steep Gorge just south of the Town. With an annual average discharge of 0. 688 m3, the River is diverted into the Hei Shan Hu reservoir near Dacaotan, partially
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Another Branch of economic activity, the Third Pillar of JiaYuGuan's economy, the Tourism Industry has only taken off recently. Although JiaYuGuan was Famous in History and its Ming Dynasty Fortress of the Great Wall of China was declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site in 1987 AD, at the time JiaYuGuan was to far and too remote for most Tourists to dare Venture. On top of this, most Chinese were unable to travel being not allowed or too poor to do so, leaving JiaYuGuan with virtually no internal tourism to speak off.
Everything has changed in the new Millennium. Through a 5 Year National Plan of "Opening Up the West" which among things aims to have the impoverished western provinces of China share in the wealth of the coastal provinces and cities,
JiaYuGuan's is a City of Agriculture as well as Heavy Industry. Local Side-Street have plenty of small markets and stalls that offer abundant fruits and produce to shop for, all year around.
JiaYuGuan has seen a remarkable upgrade in connections with the outside world. Due to a modernized track and ditto railway stations along the Lan Xin Railway Line out of Lanzhou, travel time by train is down to 5 or 6 hours. Furthermore, a new Highway was built to connect Lanzhou directly with Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, drastically improving road conditions and safety of travel by Car and Bus to JiaYuGuan (and Dunhuang). Last but not least, to cater to business travelers as well tourists, the year 2002 saw the complete overhaul of the JiaYuGuan Airfield into a modest but modern airport facility fit to handle direct flights to- and from Lanzhou, Dunhuang and a number of other destinations.

As a a result of the advent of true modernity to JiaYuGuan tourism has been booming. Since 2006, JiaYuGuan has been visited by over 20.000 Foreign Residents each year, as well as some 180.000 native Chinese Tourists. And the numbers of travelers arriving in JiaYuGuan are growing !
Before, by far too remote and rugged for a mass tourism destination, lately the Fortress at JiaYuGuan has become part of International Tourist Itineraries. Busses with Tour groups eager to discover the famed Silk Road arrive either from Lanzhou, or from the far City of Turpan in Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, from where the Bus has taken the group through Dunhuang and on to JiaYuGuan, the location of the Western-most Section of the Ming Dynasty Era Great Wall of China. Others visitors, Chinese and Foreign offload directly through the Airport. Tourist visitors can then travel around the Main Monuments of the JiaYu Pass Fortress, the 1st Beacon Tower and the Overhanging (or extended Arm) Great Wall of China. Those that stay longer or insist on viewing everything the Silk Road in China has to offer, can tour the more far away locations of the Wei and Jin Tombs, the Hei Shan (or Black Mountain) rock carvings, the desert landscape and More.
As for the the July the 1st Glacier on the Qilian Mountain. Those who would like to visit must spend a night on the Mountain in a coal dusted mining town to properly explore the glacier. Hotel facilities are zero star rated. Usually, only fanatics sign up for this trip.
Most Tourists only stay a few days to see the main monuments at JiaYuGuan. They enjoy their tours during the daytime, after which they can enjoy the local street markets, or -at night- delve deeper into the Cultural Treasures that JiaYuGuan has to offer. As a home of several rare ethnic minorities in China (P.R.C.), the City Hotels eagerly stage a number of Great Music and Dance Performances (during High Season, off Season no guarantee).
Local highlights of customs and culture are the Qinqiang Drama, Jiuquan Cup of phosphorescent jade also known as "Luminous Jade Cup" which is a custom also found in Dunhuang, and handicraft carpets made by the local ethnic minority communities.
As mentioned JiaYuGuan has its own "Melon Festival" and lately, as tourism develops in JiaYuGuan it has become home to a Glider Base (an airfield for hang glider craft) which has led to the holding of the first JiaYuGuan International Glider Festival in 2006 AD.
Ethnic Minorities in JiaYuGuan & Prefecture

JiaYuGuan, as an indispensable Oasis City on the Silk Road prides itself on its large variety of ethnic groups. Apart from the main ethnic group in China the Han, People of many different ethnicities, such as the Hui, Tibetans, Dongxiang, Yugu(r), Bao'an, Hazake, Tu, Sala (or Salar), Manchu, and Mongolians, live in and around JiaYuGuan. Ethnic Minorities make up some 44% of the Total City Population.
Find out the Details in the History of JiaYuGuan !
The Modern Facade of JiaYuGuan, still under construction at XiongGuan Plaza in November 2007 AD.
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Jiayuguan Pass International Gliding Festival is held at Jiayuguan Pass Gliding Base located outside JiaYuGuan from July 15-18 each year. During the festival, various gliding competitions are held and acrobatic flight performances given. For socializing opportunities there are plenty of other activities such as an evening bonfire party, the tasting of local snacks and cultural relic exhibitions refelecting the history of JiaYuGuan and the Heritage of the Minorities.

The Glider base facility is quite a spectacular addition for visitors lulled to sleep by endless train- or tourbus rides.
Here one can get outside and get active. In fact, Jiayuguan Pass Glider Base is regarded as one of the three best glider bases along side ones in
Although Hotel facilities have long been a point of heated debate among visitors who are not used to rough and remote, recently service seems to have been improving.
For More Information - Please Read the JiaYuGuan Hotels Page - Click Here !)
JiaYuGuan and 5000 meters high Qilian Shan as seen in evening light from a departing flight out of the City in November of 2007 AD.
Australia and South Africa. The base offers activities include gliding contests and flight training (english language available) and Best of all, during a ride on a Glider one gets to enjoy the mystical colors of the vast Gobi Desert and the splendor of the snow sceneries of Qilian Mountains in a totally unique way.
Tourists experience this unique activity under the direction of trained and experienced pilots.
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through underground Tunnels. The overall capacity of Hei Shan Hu, Black Mountain Lake Reservoir is 64 million cubic meters.

Apart from the TaoLai River Water Source Jiayuguan is rich in groundwater in three seperate places. The City and Area depend for water on the melting water from the Qilian Mountain Glaciers, precipitation and its ancient Oasis springs sprouting from the Foot of the Mountains. Although there is a drawing limit even in JiaYuGuan, overall the City is an exception to the Rule in West China. The water resources at JaiYu Pass have produced favorable conditions for local industry and agriculture as well as the development of the city for Tourism.

As a result of all the above developments, the economy of
TaoLai River Gorge and its metal hanging bridge are the most sensational tourist attraction near JiaYuGuan, zip-ride across on a cable while enjoying a view of the Number One Beacon Tower on the Great Wall of China.
Today's JiaYuGuan consists mainly of the very Heavy Industry, such Steel & Iron production and Petrochemical Industry.

Although Western China experiences a severe shortage of water due to climate change and extensive water use by arising local industries, traditional branches of economic activity such as agriculture remain strong in this Desert Oasis.

JiaYuGuan throughout times has prouded itself on its rare and delicious melons. Not surprisingly therefor JiaYuGuan is the yearly host of its very own "Melon Festival", an occasion celebrated yearly since human memory.
Locally especially famous produce are the Hami melon as well as several other types not seen elsewhere. Other fruits available in JiaYuGuan are found elsewhere in North-West China as well and include the familiar honeydew, cantaloupe, and water-melons.
Other Local products of agriculture are: wheat, corn, millet, buckwheat, jowar, white potato, potato, cotton, benne, beet and tobacco.

To be exact, the total agricultural output of JiaYuGuan Prefecture is 97.41 million yuan, making up 3.3 of the total economic output. In rural areas there are 2, 840 hectares of farmland, which are all well irrigated lands. With its advanced irrigations network and infrastructure Jiayuguan is an advanced area in an otherwise still impoverished province. Most of the farmland is under irrigation, agricultural operations are increasingly mechanized, the planted seeds themselves are under improvement, and overall the agricultural industry in the JiaYuGuan Area has adopted a scientific style in cultivation techniques. JiaYuGuan is 20% self sustaining in grain and oil production. In rural areas 42% residents are living in what is considered comfortable homes. The living space per rural citizen is 26 square meters and the farmers' average net income is 1, 570 yuan one year. A number of farmers further focus on stock raising, mainly of goats, a meager existence in these parts.
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Silvery Steel Modern Art Needle and Appartment Highrises at XiongGuan Plaza in November 2007 AD.
Impressive Taoist Murals depicting scenes from bygone Silk Road days at the Temple of Lord Guan, inside the JiaYuGuan Fortress.
Learn More about the Ethnic Nationalities in JiaYuGuan ?
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View of the Modernizing City of JiaYuGuan from across its ancient watersource, the YuQuan Spring Lake Oasis.
Jiayuguan or Jiayu Pass (simplified Chinese: 嘉峪关; traditional Chinese: 嘉峪關; pinyin: Jiāyù Guān; literally "Excellent Valley Pass") is still the first pass at the west end of the Great Wall of China.
The Olympic Torch relay had its route through JiaYuGuan in Gansu. Visited on July 6Th of 2008. Mayor of Jiayuguan Ma Guangming closed out the Jiayuguan leg of the Olympic Torch Relay after lighting the cauldron atop Jiayu Pass.
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Large Statue of a Chinese Horse running over a Globe, one of the recent Monuments showing the importance of the Silk Road, History and Tourism to the City of JiaYuGuan.
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